Learn more about The PEATS Program

Need help to design your training programs for your athletes to take that next step up?


Our consultancy services can help you and we are only a click away

Learn how to unlock your performance potential with the powerful tools of Critical Speed or Critical Power.


The PEATS Program eBook – Critical Speed and the Physiology of Training - will take you through the ‘how, why and when’ of training program design.

If you have completed two time trials, you can calculate your Critical Power or Critical Speed.

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Then check out the norms for Critical Power or for Critical Speed to see how you rate against the values provided.






Critical Speed and Critical Power:


cycling research



The articles listed below provide a general overview of the research into Critical Power and Critical Speed (Critical Velocity) spanning several decades. The reader is advised that this list is not complete and nor has it been chosen with any particular criteria apart from demonstrating some of the research literature. We intend to change this list over time, and readers are welcome to submit a paper or article that they would like to add to it.


Barker,T., D.C. Poole, M. L.Noble & T. J. Barstow. 2006. Human critical power–oxygen uptake relationship at different pedalling frequencies. Exp Physiol 91(3): 621–632 621. FullText.

Clingeleffer, A., L.McNaughton & W. Davoren.1994. Critical power may be determined from two tests in elite kayakers. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 68(1): 36-40. PubMed.

Dekerle, J. 2006. The use of Critical Velocity in Swimming. A place for Critical Stroke Rate. Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X, 6(2):201-205.FullText.  

Dekerle J, Sidney M, Hespel JM, Pelayo P. 2002. Validity and reliability of critical speed, critical stroke rate, and anaerobic capacity in relation to front crawl swimming performances. Int J Sports Med.23(2):93-8.PubMed.

Florence, S. & Joseph P. Weir. 1997. Relationship of critical velocity to marathon running performance.Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 75(3): 274-278. FullText

Gaesser GA, Carnevale TJ, Garfinkel A, Walter DO, Womack CJ.1995. Estimation of critical power with nonlinear and linear models. Med.Sci Sports Exerc.27(10):1430–8. Abstract.

Hill DW. 1993. The critical power concept. A review. Sports Med.16:237–54. PubMed.

Hill DW, Ferguson CS. 1999. A physiological description of critical velocity. Eur.J Appl Physiol. 79: 290-293. Abstract

Jenkins DG, Quigley BM.1992. Endurance training enhances critical power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(11):1283–9. PubMed.

Jenkins DG, Quigley BM. 1993.The influence of high intensity exercise training on the Wlim–Tlim relationship. Med Sci. Sports Exerc.25(2):275–82. PubMed.

Jenkins DG, Quigley BM.1990. Blood lactate in trained cyclists during cycle ergometry at critical power. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 61(3-4):278-283.PubMed.

Jones, A. M., A. Vanhatalo, M. Burnley, R. H. Morton, and D. C. Poole. 2010. Critical Power: Implications for Determination of VO2max and Exercise Tolerance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 42( 10): 1876–1890. Abstract.

Karsten, B., Jobson, S. A. Hopker, J. Passfield, L. & Beedie, C. 2013. The 3-min Test does not provide a valid measure of Critical Power using the SRM isokinetic mode. Abstract.

Karsten, B., S.A. Jobson, J. Hopker, A. Jimenez, C. & Beedie.  2013.  High agreement between laboratory and field estimates of Critical Power in cycling.  Abstract.

Kennedy, M.D. & G.J. Bell. 2000. A comparison of critical velocity estimates to actual velocities in predicting simulated rowing performance. Can.J.Appl.Physiol. 25(4): 223-235. PubMed.

Kendall, K.L., A.E. Smith, D.H. Fukuda, T.R. Dwyer & J.R. Stout. 2011. Critical velocity: a predictor of 2000-m rowing ergometer performance in NCAA D1 female collegiate rowers. J.Spt.Sci. 29(9): 945-950. Abstract.

Martin, L. & G. P. Whyte.2000. Comparison of Critical Swimming Velocity and Velocity at Lactate Threshold in Elite Triathletes .Int.J.SportsMed. 21(5): 366-368. Abstract.

Monod H & Scherrer J.1965. The work capacity of a synergicmuscular group. Ergonomics 8: 329–338. Abstract.

Moritani T, Nagata A, deVries HA, Muro M. 1981. Critical power as a measure of physical work capacity and anaerobic threshold. Ergonomics. 24:339–50. Abstract.

Muniz-Pumares, D.; Karsten, B.; Triska, C.; Glaister, M. 2018. Methodological Approaches and Related Challenges Associated With the Determination of Critical Power and W′  J.Str.Condit.Res. 7 Dec.

Smith CGM & Jones AM (2001). The relationship between critical velocity, maximal lactate steady-state velocity and lactate turnpoint velocity in runners. Eur J Appl Physiol 85:19–26. Abstract

Smith J.C,, B.S. Dangelmaier, D. W. Hill. 1999. Critical Power is Related to Cycling Time Trial Performance. Int.J.Sports Med. 20(6): 374-378.Abstract.

Toussaint HM, Wakayoshi K, Hollander AP, Ogita F. (1998). Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30: 144-51 Abstract

Vanhatalo A, Doust JH, Burnley M. 2007. Determination of critical power using a 3-min all-out cycling test. Med Sci Sports Exerc.39(3):548–55. FullText

Wakayoshi K, Ikuta K, Yoshida T, et al. 1992. Determination and validity of critical velocity as an index of swimming performance in the competitive swimmer. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol.64:153–7. Abstract.

Wakayoshi, K., T. Yoshida, M. Udo et al. 1993. Does critical swimming velocity represent exercise intensity at maximal lactate steady state? Eur.J.Appl.Physiol.66(1):90-95. Abstract